International Journal of Keratoconus and Ectatic Corneal Diseases

Register      Login

VOLUME 4 , ISSUE 2 ( May-August, 2015 ) > List of Articles


Corneal Hydrops in Keratoconus

Ritu Nagpal, Prafulla K Maharana

Citation Information : Nagpal R, Maharana PK. Corneal Hydrops in Keratoconus. Int J Kerat Ect Cor Dis 2015; 4 (2):52-55.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10025-1098

Published Online: 01-12-2017

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2015; The Author(s).



The purpose of this review is to outline the etiology, clinical features, and management of acute corneal hydrops (CH) in cases of keratoconus (KC).

Recent findings

The advent of newer investigative modalities like ultra biomicroscopy, anterior segment optical coherence tomography and confocal microscopy has contributed toward the diagnosis, treatment planning and following the course of therapy in cases of acute hydrops.


Corneal hydrops is an acute complication of keratoconus which in most instances resolves spontaneously. However, prolonged corneal edema can lead to complications, such as corneal neovascularization which can jeopardise a future corneal graft. Hence, timely intervention is required in most cases to prevent such complications as well as for early visual rehabilitation. Intracameral gas injection is the most commonly performed surgical procedure for hydrops. Modifications in surgical technique can help to tackle difficult situations.

How to cite this article

Maharana PK, Nagpal R, Sharma N. Corneal Hydrops in Keratoconus. Int J Kerat Ect Cor Dis 2015;4(2):52-55.

PDF Share
  1. Management of acute corneal hydrops in ectatic corneal disorders. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2012 Aug;23(8):317-323.
  2. Acute corneal hydrops in keratoconus. Ophthalmology 1994 Oct;101(10):1738-1744.
  3. Acute hydrops in the corneal ectasias: associated factors and outcomes. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 1999;97:187-203.
  4. Pellucid marginal corneal degeneration. Ophthalmology 2004 Dec;111(6):1102-1107.
  5. Prognostic factors for the progression of keratoconus. Ophthalmology 1994 Mar;101(3):439-447.
  6. Round and oval cones in keratoconus. Ophthalmology 1980 Sep;87(9):905-909.
  7. Incidence of keratoconus in spring catarrh. Br J Ophthalmol 1988 Jan;72(1):41-43.
  8. Mongolism (Downfs syndrome) and keratoconus. Br J Ophthalmol 1963 Jun;47(6):321-330.
  9. Keratoconus and acute hydrops in mentally retarded patients with congenital rubella syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol 1981 Feb;91(2):231-233.
  10. Clinical profile and risk factors for keratoplasty and development of hydrops in north Indian patients with keratoconus. Cornea 2009 May;28(4):367-370.
  11. Ultrastructure of keratoconus with healed hydrops. Am J Ophthalmol 1976 Sep;82(3):450-458.
  12. Ultrasound biomicroscopic examination of acute hydrops in patients with keratoconus. Am J Ophthalmol 2006 Jun;141(6):1134-1136.
  13. Ultrasound biomicroscopy.guided assessment of acute corneal hydrops. Ophthalmology 2011 Nov;118(11): 2166. 2171.
  14. Ruptures of Descemetfs membrane in keratoconus: causing acute hydrops and posterior keratoconus. Am J Ophthalmol 1967 Jun; 63(6):1689-1692.
  15. Corneal ectasia in vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Ophthalmology 1989 Nov;96(11):1615-1623.
  16. Inverse relationship between age and severity and sequelae of acute corneal hydrops associated with keratoconus. Br J Ophthalmol 2007 Jul;91(7):984-985.
  17. Biometric evaluation of keratoconic eyes with slit lamp-adapted optical coherence tomography. Cornea 2011 Jan;30(1):56-59.
  18. Intracameral SF6 injection and anterior segment OCT-based documentation for acute hydrops management in pellucid marginal corneal degeneration. Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2008 Jun;31(3):164-166.
  19. Less. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography features of acute corneal hydrops. Cornea 2012 May;31(5):479-485.
  20. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography findings of acute hydrops in a patient with keratoconus. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging 2010 Nov-Dec;41(Suppl):S114-116.
  21. Acute corneal hydrops: a case report including confocal and histopathological considerations. Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2006 May;29(2):69-73.
  22. Intracameral perfluoropropane gas in the treatment of acute corneal hydrops. Ophthalmology 2011 May;118(5):934.939.
  23. Infectious keratitis with corneal perforation associated with corneal hydrops and contact lens wear in keratoconus. Br J Ophthalmol 1996 May;80(5):409-412.
  24. Corneal complications associated with topical ophthalmic use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. J Cataract Refract Surg 2001 Apr;27(4):622-631.
  25. Intracameral air injection for acute hydrops in keratoconus. Am J Ophthalmol 2002 Jun;133(6):750-752.
  26. Management of acute corneal hydrops secondary to keratoconus with intracameral injection of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). Cornea 2007 Oct;26(9):1067-1069.
  27. Nonresolution of acute hydrops because of intrastromal migration of perfluoropropane gas. Cornea 2010 Aug;29(8):944-946.
  28. Intraocular gas effects on corneal endothelial permeability. Lens Eye Toxic Res 1992;9(2):85-91.
  29. Urrets-Zavalia syndrome following intracameral C3F8 injection for acute corneal hydrops. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 2008 Mar;36(2):198-199.
  30. Corneal neovascularisation in acute hydrops. Eye 1992;6(Pt 4):404-406.
  31. Efficacy and safety of intracameral perfluoropropane (C3F8) tamponade and compression sutures for the management of acute corneal hydrops. Cornea 2009 Apr;28(3):317.320.
  32. Amniotic membrane transplantation with cauterization for keratoconus complicated by persistent hydrops in mentally retarded patients. Ophthalmology 2006 Apr;113(4):561-564.
  33. Spontaneous corneal hydrops and perforation in keratoconus and pellucid marginal degeneration. Cornea 2003 Mar;22(2):169-174.
  34. Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty in a patient with keratoglobus and chronic hydrops secondary to a spontaneous descemet membrane tear. Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine, vol. 2013, Article ID 697403, 5 pages, 2013.
  35. Pneumodescemetopexy with perfluoroethane (C2F6) for the treatment of acute hydrops secondary to keratoconus. Eye (Lond) 2014 Jul;28(7):847-851.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.