International Journal of Keratoconus and Ectatic Corneal Diseases

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VOLUME 2 , ISSUE 2 ( May-August, 2013 ) > List of Articles


Topographic and Tomographic Indices for Detecting Keratoconus and Subclinical Keratoconus: A Systematic Review

David Smadja

Citation Information : Smadja D. Topographic and Tomographic Indices for Detecting Keratoconus and Subclinical Keratoconus: A Systematic Review. Int J Kerat Ect Cor Dis 2013; 2 (2):60-64.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10025-1052

Published Online: 01-04-2016

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2013; The Author(s).



To provide an overview of the topographic and tomographic indices developed for detecting keratoconus (KC) and subclinical keratoconus.


Literature review of studies describing and testing KC indices as well as indices developed for improving the sensitivity of subclinical KC detection.


Several indices, based on anterior and posterior curvature measurements, corneal spatial distribution or posterior corneal elevation have been developed for improving the detection of KC and subclinical KC. However, to date, none of them could reach, alone, sufficient discriminating power for differentiating the mildest forms of the disease from normal corneas. New detection programs, based on a combination of corneal indices, and generated using artificial intelligence emerged recently and helped to significantly improve the subclinical KC detection.


The combination of topographic and tomographic corneal indices has helped to significantly improve the sensitivity of subclinical KC detection. However, combining these morphological indices to wavefront and biomechanical analyses of the cornea will certainly further improve the sensitivity of the future screening tests.

How to cite this article

Smadja D. Topographic and Tomographic Indices for Detecting Keratoconus and Subclinical Keratoconus: A Systematic Review. Int J Kerat Ect Cor Dis 2013;2(2):60-64.

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